RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)


Substance abuse in the U.S. has been estimated to cost $99 billion annually through lower productivity. Yet the authors urge caution in attempting to reduce these costs and health and safety Risks. In doing so, they cite commonly high frequencies of false negatives and false positives in employee drug tests - the latter having the potential to do great injustice to many drug-free employees.

Repository Citation

John M. Gleason, Predictive Probabilities In Employee Drug-Testing , 2 RISK 3 (1991).