Date of Award

Fall 2006

Project Type


Program or Major


Degree Name

Master of Science

First Advisor

Karen Collins


This study examined the relationships that exist between psychological skills and confidence. Analysis of the relationship took place with ice hockey, lacrosse and soccer goalkeepers. Participants (N = 1927) completed measures of psychological skills (ACSI-28) and confidence (CSCI) online. Participants deemed psychological skills as important, but rarely used them to enhance performance. Goalkeepers (N = 412) scored higher on both the personal coping resource score (M = 50.82, SD = 9.24) and confidence (M = 41.88, SD = 5.66) than non-goalkeepers on the personal coping resource score (M = 47.48, SD = 9.60) and confidence (M = 41.84, SD = 5.69). Multiple MANOVAs identified significant differences between goalkeeper and non-goalkeepers on five of seven ACSI-28 subscales. Goalkeepers scored significantly higher on the ACSI-28 subscales coping with adversity; peaking under pressure; goal setting/mental preparation; concentration; and confidence and achievement motivation. A correlational analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between personal coping resource and confidence scores. A significant correlation exists. This study indicates goalkeepers possess a different set of psychological skills and confidence level than their counterparts.