Sixteen holes were drilled at five sites on the northeastern flank of Ontong Java Plateau during Leg 130 (Sites 803 through 807). All of these sites are near the equator, but are at different depths (803: 02°26.0'N, 3410 m; 804: 01°00.3'N, 3861 m; 805: 01°13.7'N, 3188 m; 806: 00°19.1'N, 2520 m; and 807: 03°36.4'N, 2805 m). One of our goals was to obtain a depth transect of Neogene carbonate deposition for reconstructing the history of ocean climate, chemistry, and productivity, and for understanding the origin of acoustic reflectors. Another goal was to achieve considerable penetration into basement for elucidating the origin of the plateau. All sites yielded multiple Neogene sequences, which were cored using the advanced hydraulic piston corer (APC) to the ooze-chalk transition (10-14 Ma) and with the extended core barrel (XCB) below that. Sites 803 and 807 were drilled to basement and yielded incomplete Paleogene and Cretaceous sections. Penetration into basement was 25 m at Site 803 and 149 m at Site 807; 98 m of basalt was recovered. In all, we cored 5889 m, taking 639 cores. Of the record 4822 m recovered, 55% was taken with the APC, 39% with the XCB, and 6% with the rotary core barrel (RCB). All sites except Site 804 were logged. Neogene sedimentation rates were found to vary by more than a factor of 2, with a striking maximum in the latest Miocene to early Pliocene and a strong minimum in the Pleistocene. Fluctuations in carbonate content on the millionyear scale are highly coherent among depths over the last 12 m.y., perhaps less so before that. Many acoustic reflectors appear synchronous with carbonate reduction events (CREs) and other paleoceanographic events. Other reflectors are tied to diagenesis (e.g., the ooze-chalk transformation, which is diachronous). Recovery of the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary at Sites 803 and 807 demonstrates the presence of a deep carbonate-compensation depth (CCD) across the transition: one sequence is calcareous, the other is not. Because the K/T sections occur below and above major hiatuses, we postulate that special conditions for preservation existed during the transition. In addition, there is evidence of volcanic activity at that time. The basalts cored at Sites 803 and 807 are predominantly olivine-bearing and were erupted during the mid-Cretaceous. At Site 807, pillow lavas buried sediments. One thick flow (at about 28 m) was penetrated here, apparently a flood basalt. Magnetic paleolatitudes suggest that the Ontong Java Plateau has moved coherently with the Pacific Plate since the Early Cretaceous.
Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
International Ocean Discovery Program
Berger, W.H., Kroenke. L.W, Mayer, L.A., and the Shipboard Scientific Party: Ontong Java Plateau, Leg 130 Synopsis of major drilling results, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program: Initial Reports, 1991, vol. 130, pp. 497-540.