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From 1889 to 1914, the Second International acted as a symbol of socialist internationalism. World War I would split the International between a nationalist right, a moderate center, and a communist left. Contemporaneous to the Second International was an epoch of imperialist expansion by the great powers of Europe, the United States, and Asia. Debates on imperialism would reflect, reconfigure, and exacerbate existing political and theoretical divisions within Second International social democracy. Imperialism would be the rock that the Second Internationalism broke itself against.
Taylor, Luke P., "Weltpolitik und Weltkrieg: The Imperialism Debate within Second International Socialism (1884-1917)" (2023). Undergraduate Research Conference (URC) Student Presentations. 545.