The Effect of Temperature on the Strain-Induced Austenite to Martensite Transformation in SS 316L During Uniaxial Tension


Controlling the microstructure of components is of interest to achieve optimal final part properties, i.e., materials by design. The manufacturing process itself can affect a material’s characteristics by changing the microstructure. For example, past research has shown that austenite to martensite phase transformation in stainless steel occurs during deformation. Temperature is known to have a significant influence on this phenomenon. In this paper, the effect of temperature on the austenitic to martensite phase transformation in SS 316L under uniaxial tension is investigated. Both a cooling system and a heat exchanger were employed in a uniaxial tension experimental setup to control the temperature. Tensile specimens were strained to fracture at four temperatures of −15, 0, 10, and 20 °C. Digital imaging correlation (DIC) and a thermal imaging camera were used for tests at 0 °C and above to capture strain and temperature data, respectively. Strain and temperature data could not be obtained at −15 °C due to the DIC paint flaking during testing. X-ray diffraction was used to measure the volume fraction of martensite in both the as-received and the tensile-tested materials.

Publication Date




Journal Title

Forming the Future

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Document Type

Book Chapter


© 2021 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society