Rheological Investigation of Pre-Crosslinked Hybrid Hydrogels for 3D Bio-printing Processes


Despite being a very popular topic and researched by several scientists, the entire 3D bioprinting process is still subjected to several challenges like geometric fidelity, mechanical complexities, cell viability, and proliferation. Rheological investigations along with the proper design of experiments help to explore the physical and mechanical properties of biomaterials and 3D printed scaffolds that are directly associated with their geometric fidelity. To ensure post-printed structural integrity, viscosity thickeners and crosslinkers were used in this research. Mixtures of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC, viscosity enhancer), Alginate, and CaCl2 and CaSO4 (crosslinkers) were prepared at various concentrations maintaining minimum solid content. For each composition, a set of rheological tests was performed in form of flow, thixotropic, amplitude, and frequency tests. This research presents an overview of controlling the rheological properties of various bio-inks that are viscosity enhancer and pre-crosslinkers dependent, which opens doors to looking at 3D bioprinting in a very different way.

Publication Date


Journal Title

Proceedings for IISE Annual Conference & Expo 2022



Document Type

Conference Proceeding


Copyright Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE) 2022