cGMP influences guanine nucleotide binding to frog photoreceptor G-protein.
A rapid light-induced decrease in cGMP is thought to play a role in regulating the permeability or light sensitivity of photoreceptor membranes. Photo-excited rhodopsin activates a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) by catalyzing the exchange of bound GDP for GTP. This G-protein·GTP complex activates the phosphodiesterase resulting in a decrease in cGMP concentration. We have observed two processes in vitro which may be relevant for the regulation of G-protein activation. First, we have found that free GDP binds to G-protein with an affinity similar to that of GTP. These two nucleotides appear to compete for a common site. Since G-protein·GDP does not activate phosphodiesterase, light-induced changes in the GTP/GDP ratio known to occur on illumination may serve to reduce G-protein activation and hence reduce phosphodiesterase activation. Second, addition of cGMP in the presence of equimolar GTP and GDP causes GTP binding to G-protein to be enhanced compared to GDP binding. This effect increases as the cGMP concentration is increased from 0.05 to 2 mM. Thus, light-induced decreases in cGMP concentration may also act as a feedback control in reducing G-protein activation. One or both of these processes may be involved in the desensitization (light adaptation) of rod photoreceptors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Robinson, P.R., Radeke, M.J., Cote, R.H., Bownds, M.D. cGMP influences guanine nucleotide binding to frog photoreceptor G-protein. (1986) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261 (1), pp. 313-318.