Transportation is the backbone of economic activity, connecting manufacturers with supply chains, consumers with products and tourism, and people with their workplaces, homes, and communities across both urban and rural landscapes. However, the ability of the transportation sector to perform reliably, safely, and efficiently is undermined by a changing climate. Heavy precipitation, coastal flooding, heat, wildfires, freeze–thaw cycles, and changes in average precipitation and temperature impact individual assets across all modes. These impacts threaten the performance of the entire network, with critical ramifications for economic vitality and mobility, particularly for vulnerable populations and urban infrastructure.
Sea level rise is progressively making coastal roads and bridges more vulnerable and less functional. Many coastal cities across the United States have already experienced an increase in high tide flooding that reduces the functionality of low-elevation roadways, rail, and bridges, often causing costly congestion and damage to infrastructure.1,2 Inland transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to intense rainfall and flooding. In some regions, the increasing frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation events reduce transportation system efficiency3 and increase accident risk. High temperatures can stress bridge integrity4,5 and have caused more frequent and extended delays to passenger and freight rail systems and air traffic.4,6
Transportation is not only vulnerable to impacts of climate change but also contributes significantly to the causes of climate change. In 2016, the transportation sector became the top contributor to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions.7 The transportation system is rapidly growing and evolving in response to market demand and innovation. This growth could make climate mitigation and adaptation progressively more challenging to implement and more important to achieve. However, transportation practitioners are increasingly invested in addressing climate risks, as evidenced in more numerous and diverse assessments of transportation sector vulnerabilities across the United States.
Earth Systems Research Center
FOURTH NATIONAL CLIMATE ASSESSMENT
U.S. Global Change Research Program
Jacobs, J.M., M. Culp, L. Cattaneo, P. Chinowsky, A. Choate, S. DesRoches, S. Douglass, and R. Miller. 2018. Transportation. In: USGCRP, 2018: Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume II – Climate Change Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States [Reidmiller, D.R., C.W. Avery, D. Easterling, K. Kunkel, K.L.M. Lewis, T.K. Maycock, and B.C Stewart (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA.