Controls of nitrogen isotope patterns in soil profiles


To determine the dominant processes controlling nitrogen (N) dynamics in soils and increase insights into soil N cycling from nitrogen isotope (δ15N) data, patterns of 15N enrichment in soil profiles were compiled from studies on tropical, temperate, and boreal systems. The maximum 15N enrichment between litter and deeper soil layers varied strongly with mycorrhizal fungal association, averaging 9.6 ± 0.4‰ in ectomycorrhizal systems and 4.6 ± 0.5‰ in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. The 15N enrichment varied little with mean annual temperature, precipitation, or nitrification rates. One main factor controlling 15N in soil profiles, fractionation against 15N during N transfer by mycorrhizal fungi to host plants, leads to 15N-depleted plant litter at the soil surface and 15N-enriched nitrogen of fungal origin at depth. The preferential preservation of 15N-enriched compounds during decomposition and stabilization is a second important factor. A third mechanism, N loss during nitrification and denitrification, may account for large 15N enrichments with depth in less N-limited forests and may account for soil profiles where maximum δ15N is at intermediate depths. Mixing among soil horizons should also decrease differences among soil horizons. We suggest that dynamic models of isotope distributions within soil profiles that can incorporate multiple processes could provide additional information about the history of nitrogen movements and transformations at a site.


Earth Systems Research Center

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