Measurements of the atmospheric aerosol chemical composition during the Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) indicate substantial vertical transport of boundary layer aerosol to the free troposphere over the south-central United States during springtime. Mixing ratios of water-soluble aerosol Ca 2+ at 6 - 12 km altitude exhibited a median mixing ratio of 20 pptv, with 15% of the measurements > 100 pptv and a maximum of ! 235 pptv. In air parcels with enhanced Ca 2+, the ratios K+/Ca 2+, Mg2+/Ca 2+, and Na+/Ca 2+ in the bulk aerosol were distinctly characteristic of those in limestone and/or cement. Significantly enhanced mixing ratios of aerosol SO42-, NO3-, and NH4 + were also concomitant with the elevated Ca 2+, suggesting transport of both crustal and anthropogenic aerosols to the upper troposphere. The mass concentration of water-soluble aerosol material was in the range 0.1 - 6 pg m -3 STP, and estimated crustal dust levels were 7 - 160 pg m '3 STP

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Geophysical Research Letters



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© 1998 by the Chinese Geophysical Society