Date of Award
Program or Major
Doctor of Philosophy
Reinforcement Learning (RL) is learning to act in different situations to maximize a numerical reward signal. The most common approach of formalizing RL is to use the frameworkof optimal control in an inadequately known Markov Decision Process (MDP). Traditional approaches toward solving RL problems build on two common assumptions: i) exploration is allowed for the purpose of learning the MDP model and ii) optimizing for the expected objective is sufficient. These assumptions comfortably hold for many simulated domains like games (e.g. Atari, Go), but are not sufficient for many real-world problems. Consider for example the domain of precision medicine for personalized treatment. Adopting a medical treatment for the sole purpose of learning its impact is prohibitive. It is also not permissible to embrace a specific treatment procedure by considering only the expected outcome, ignoring the potential of worst-case undesirable effects. Therefore, applying RL to solve real-world problems brings some additional challenges to address. In this thesis, we assume that exploration is impossible because of the sensitivity of actions in the domain. We therefore adopt a Batch RL framework, which operates with a logged set of fixed dataset without interacting with the environment. We also accept the need of finding solutions that work well in both average and worst case situations, we label such solutions as robust. We consider the robust MDP (RMDP) framework for handling these challenges. RMDPs provide the foundations of quantifying the uncertainties about the model by using so called ambiguity sets. Ambiguity sets represent the set of plausible transition probabilities - which is usually constructed as a multi-dimensional confidence region. Ambiguity sets determine the trade-off between robustness and average-case performance of an RMDP. This thesis presents a novel approach to optimizing the shape of ambiguity sets constructed with weighted L1−norm. We derive new high-confidence sampling bounds for weighted L1 ambiguity sets and describe how to compute near-optimal weights from coarse estimates of value functions. Experimental results on a diverse set of benchmarks show that optimized ambiguity sets provide significantly tighter robustness guarantees. In addition to reshaping the ambiguity sets, it is also desirable to optimize the size and position of the sets for further improvement in performance. In this regard, this thesis presents a method for constructing ambiguity sets that can achieve less conservative solutions with the same worst-case guarantees by 1) leveraging a Bayesian prior, and 2) relaxing the requirement that the set is a confidence interval. Our theoretical analysis establishes the safety of the proposed method, and the empirical results demonstrate its practical promise. In addition to optimizing ambiguity sets for RMDPs, this thesis also proposes a new paradigm for incorporating robustness into the constrained-MDP framework. We apply robustness to both the rewards and constrained-costs, because robustness is equally (if not more) important for the constrained costs as well. We derive required gradient update rules and propose a policy gradient class of algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on several problem domains. Parallel to Robust-MDPs, a slightly different perspective on handling model uncertainties is to compute soft-robust solutions using a risk measure (e.g. Value-at-Risk or Conditional Value-at-Risk). In high-stakes domains, it is important to quantify and manage risk that arises from inherently stochastic transitions between different states of the model. Most prior work on robust RL and risk-averse RL address the inherent transition uncertainty and model uncertainty independently. This thesis proposes a unified Risk-Averse Soft-Robust (RASR) framework that quantifies both model and transition uncertainties together. We show that the RASR objective can be solved efficiently when formulated using the Entropic risk measure. We also report theoretical analysis and empirical evidences on several problem domains. The methods presented in this thesis can potentially be applied in many practical applications of artificial intelligence, such as agriculture, healthcare, robotics and so on. They help us to broaden our understanding toward computing robust solutions to safety critical domains. Having robust and more realistic solutions to sensitive practical problems can inspire widespread adoption of AI to solve challenging real world problems, potentially leading toward the pinnacle of the age of automation.
Russel, Reazul Hasan, "LEARNING TO ACT WITH ROBUSTNESS" (2021). Doctoral Dissertations. 2634.