Target Finding with a Spatially Aware Handheld Chart Display
Objective: The objective was to evaluate the use of a spatially aware handheld chart display in a comparison with a track-up fixed display configuration and to investigate how cognitive strategies vary when performing the task of matching chart symbols with environmental features under different display geometries and task constraints.
Background: Small-screen devices containing both accelerometers and magnetometers support the development of spatially aware handheld maps. These can be designed so that symbols representing targets in the external world appear in a perspective view determined by the orientation of the device.
Method: A panoramic display was used to simulate a marine environment. The task involved matching targets in the scene to symbols on simulated chart displays. In Experiment 1, a spatially aware handheld chart display was compared to a fixed track-up chart display. In Experiment 2, a gaze monitoring system was added and the distance between the chart display and the scene viewpoint was varied.
Results: All respondents were faster with the handheld device. Novices were much more accurate with the handheld device. People allocated their gaze very differently if they had to move between a map display and a view of the environment.
Conclusion: There may be important benefits to spatially aware handheld displays in reducing errors relating to common navigation tasks.
Application: Both the difficulty of spatial transformations and the allocation of attention should be considered in the design of chart displays.
Journal or Conference Title
54, Number 6
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
R. Arsenault and C. Ware, "Target finding with a spatially aware handheld chart display," Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1040–1052, May 2012. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720812444788