Date of Award

Winter 2011

Project Type


Program or Major

Civil Engineering

Degree Name

Master of Science

First Advisor

James P Malley Jr


A sustainability assessment which combines the academic strengths of university research modeling with the practical inputs and needs of an operating utility is presented to compare two water treatment alternatives. PWN Water Supply Company is evaluating an upgrade from their current conventional coagulation and sand filtration (CSF) treatment process at WTP Andijk to Suspended Ion Exchange with Ceramic Microfiltration (SIX/CeraMac). An initial LCA was performed to determine which pretreatment is more sustainable in terms of energy consumption and carbon footprint.

The initial LCA indicated that treatment with SIX/CeraMac exhibits a lower impact as measured by kg of carbon dioxide equivalents per cubic meter of treated water produced (kgCO2-Eq/m3). The initial LCA results were promising and inspired an ongoing broader and more detailed LCA. Detailed LCA incorporates a more complete analysis of waste stream treatment and disposal for each alternative. SimaPro(TM) software was chosen for the detailed LCA to expand comparison and decision criteria using the Eco-Indicator 99 method. A comparison of effluent water quality as well as a cost assessment has also been included in this research.