Date of Award

Spring 2020

Project Type


Program or Major

Natural Resources

Degree Name

Master of Science

First Advisor

Kelly Giraud

Second Advisor

Clayton Mitchell

Third Advisor

John Halstead


This study assesses regional characteristics of fleet vehicles within New England calculating

total cost of ownership (TCO) and greenhouse gas (GHG). Inventory for battery electric vehicles

(BEV), extended mileage battery electric vehicles (BEV+), plug in hybrid electric vehicles

(PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and internal combustion vehicles (ICV) light duty fleet

vehicles is based on New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) fleet

characteristics. This analysis was conducted using empirical data from the State of New

Hampshire and University of New Hampshire fleets, ISO-New England (ISO-NE) grid data, and

peer reviewed literature to capture the impacts of regional driving characteristics, energy grid,

and climate. With 2019 gasoline and electricity prices, results show the HEV has the lowest

lifetime TCO, $2,709.88 less than the second lowest vehicle. The PHEV is shown to cost

$1,082.86 dollars less than the ICV while the BEVs total costs are $233.65 greater. All vehicle

technologies show major reductions in fuel and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs

compared to the ICV, specifically under the high mileage of State of New Hampshire fleet

vehicles. The BEV shows the largest GHG abatement potential by emitting .17kg/mile CO2e,

representing a 54% decrease below the ICV. This study indicates both PHEVs and BEVs are cost

competitive with ICVs while providing substantial GHG emission abatement while the HEV is

determined to have the lowest TCO amongst all vehicles along with 33% GHG abatement.