The relationship among the cause-and-effect of the Arctic atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean is discussed. The increased vulnerability of the Arctic system to anomalous atmospheric forcing can be argued from the perspective that recent ice loss is the result of a long-term preconditioning to thinner ice. Such consequences demonstrate the difficulties inherent in ascertaining how the atmospheric circulation responds to Arctic, and global, climate change. Later-forming sea ice also leads to less protection from the waves of fall storms, affecting coastal communities such as Kivalina and Shishmaref. The coming decades will provide new insights into the complexities of the Arctic climate system and how changes will affect the biological and human communities within and beyond its boundaries.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
American Meteorological Society
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Timmermans, M.-L., Francis, J., Proshutinsky, A., Hamilton, L. Taking stock of arctic sea ice and climate. (2009) Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90 (9), pp. 1351-1353.
©2009 American Meteorological Society