Hidden forms of victimization in elementary students involved in bullying.


This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to which victimization in these other domains enhances the prediction of internalizing problems. Participants were 689 fifth-grade students from an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth completed self- report measures about bullying involvement, victimization in the home and community, and internalizing problems. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims endorsed more victimization in other domains than students not involved in bullying in one of these capacities; bully-victims had the highest victimization rates overall. Further, although regression models showed that bullying involvement was related to greater internalizing problems, explanatory power was increased through the inclusion of other victimization forms. Findings highlight the need for comprehensive victimization assessment among students involved in bullying in any capacity.



Publication Date


Journal Title

School Psychology Review


National Association of School Psychologists.

Document Type



Copyright 2007 by the National Association of School Psychologists.