When can I help? a conceptual framework for the prevention of sexual violence through bystander intervention
The bystander intervention approach is gaining popularity as a means for engaging communities in sexual assault prevention, especially on college campuses. Many bystander programs are teaching community members how to intervene without first assisting them to identify the full range of opportunities when they can intervene. In this article, the authors review the literature on sexual violence bystander intervention and present a conceptual framework that lays out a continuum of bystander opportunities ranging from reactive situations after an assault has occurred, to situations before an assault has occurred (posing high to low risk to victims), as well as proactive situations where no risk to the victim is present. The implications of this typology are discussed in the context of program development, evaluation, and further research.
Psychology, Prevention Innovations Research Center Pubs
Trauma, Violence, and Abuse
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
McMahon, S., Banyard, V.L. When can i help? a conceptual framework for the prevention of sexual violence through bystander intervention. (2012) Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 13 (1), pp. 3-14.
© SAGE Publications 2012.