Four ADR1c mutations that occur close to Ser-230 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional activator ADR1 and which greatly enhance the ability of ADR1 to activate ADH2 expression under glucose-repressed conditions have been shown to reduce or eliminate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) phosphorylation of Ser-230 in vitro. In addition, unregulated cAPK expression in vivo blocks ADH2 depression in an ADR1-dependent fashion in which ADR1c mutations display decreased sensitivity to unregulated cAPK activity. Taken together, these data have suggested that ADR1c mutations enhance ADR1 activity by blocking cAPK phosphorylation and inactivation of Ser-230. We have isolated and characterized an additional 17 ADR1c mutations, defining 10 different amino acid changes, that were located in the region defined by amino acids 227 through 239 of ADR1. Three observations, however, indicate that the ADR1c phenotype is not simply equivalent to a lack of cAPK phosphorylation. First, only some of these newly isolated ADR1c mutations affected the ability of yeast cAPK to phosphorylate corresponding synthetic peptides modeled on the 222 to 234 region of ADR1 in vitro. Second, we observed that strains lacking cAPK activity did not display enhanced ADH2 expression under glucose growth conditions. Third, when Ser-230 was mutated to a nonphosphorylatable residue, lack of cAPK activity led to a substantial increase in ADH2 expression under glucose-repressed conditions. Thus, while cAPK controls ADH2 expression and ADR1 is required for this control, cAPK acts by a mechanism that is independent of effects on ADR1 Ser-230. It was also observed that deletion of the ADR1c region resulted in an ADR1c phenotype. The ADR1c region is, therefore, involved in maintaining ADR1 in an inactive form. ADR1c mutations may block the binding of a repressor to ADR1 or alter the structure of ADR1 so that transcriptional activation regions become unmasked.
Molecular and Cellular Biology
American Society for Microbiology
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ADR1c mutations enhance the ability of ADR1 to activate transcription by a mechanism that is independent of effects on cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation of Ser-230. C L Denis, S C Fontaine, D Chase, B E Kemp, and L T Bemis Mol. Cell. Biol. April 1992 12:4 1507-1514; doi:10.1128/MCB.12.4.1507