Biomonitoring polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human milk as a function of environment, dietary intake, and demographics in New Hampshire


Human milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PBDEs in human milk from New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships between PBDE levels in human milk and stage of lactation, maternal characteristics, living environment and dietary intake. Forty women provided up to three human milk samples at the end of their first, second and third month of breastfeeding for evaluation of day-to-day and month-to-month variation in PBDE levels. Participants completed four questionnaires, which provided maternal, living environment, and diet information. The Sigma PBDE concentrations in human milk over the 3-month collection period ranged from 6.5 to 166.7 ng g(-1) lipid. The median for the 3-month period was 29.7 ng g(-1). BDE-47 was the predominant congener, however. BDE-153 predominated in 20% of the participants' samples. Day-to-day variation in Sigma PBDEs was negligible; there was no significant difference in mean PBDE levels from month-to-month. Positive associations were seen between BDE-153 and age, postpartum saturated fat consumption, and the home model. There was a negative association between PBDE levels and fruit consumption during the third trimester. Our results indicate that PBDE levels in human milk from New Hampshire are within the range that has been reported in the US, and levels are stable during the first 3-months of lactation. Our findings revealed a higher predominance pattern with BDE-153 compared to other studies, and indicate that PBDE levels are influenced by diet and the home environment. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Copyright © 2010, Elsevier