Experimental Implementation of SS 316L Cruciform Testing to Achieve Various Deformation Paths


By following varying deformation paths, e.g., a linear path to equibiaxial loading versus a bilinear path of uniaxial loading followed by biaxial loading, the same final strain state can be achieved. However, the stress state that the material is subjected to is considerably different due to the varying deformation. This is of interest in a growing field of stress superposition to improve formability and manipulate final part properties in metal forming applications. One potential application is forming patient-specific, trauma fixation hardware with differing strength and weight reduction requirements in various regions. In this paper, experiments were performed on a custom fabricated cruciform machine with the goal of subjecting stainless steel 316L to various deformation paths. A novel cruciform specimen geometry was designed in collaboration with the US National Institute of Standards and Technology to achieve large strain values in the gauge region. Digital Image Correlation was utilized to measure surface strain fields in real time.

Publication Date


Journal Title

Forming the Future



Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Document Type

Book Chapter


© 2021 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society