This paper describes the design, synthesis, characterization, and performance of a novel semiconductive crystalline coordination network, synthesized using 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxytriphenylene (HHTP) ligands interconnected with bismuth ions, toward chemiresistive gas sensing. Bi(HHTP) exhibits two distinct structures upon hydration and dehydration of the pores within the network, Bi(HHTP)-α and Bi(HHTP)-β, respectively, both with unprecedented network topology (2,3-c and 3,4,4,5-c nodal net stoichiometry, respectively) and unique corrugated coordination geometries of HHTP molecules held together by bismuth ions, as revealed by a crystal structure resolved via microelectron diffraction (MicroED) (1.00 Å resolution). Good electrical conductivity (5.3 × 10–3 S·cm–1) promotes the utility of this material in the chemical sensing of gases (NH3 and NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs: acetone, ethanol, methanol, and isopropanol). The chemiresistive sensing of NO and NH3 using Bi(HHTP) exhibits limits of detection 0.15 and 0.29 parts per million (ppm), respectively, at low driving voltages (0.1–1.0 V) and operation at room temperature. This material is also capable of exhibiting unique and distinct responses to VOCs at ppm concentrations. Spectroscopic assessment via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods (i.e., attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy (DRIFTS)), suggests that the sensing mechanisms of Bi(HHTP) to VOCs, NO, and NH3 comprise a complex combination of steric, electronic, and protic properties of the targeted analytes.

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ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces


ACS Publications

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Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society


This is an Open Access article published by ACS Publications in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces in 2021, available online: