Additively manufactured (AM) three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures exhibit geometrically optimal mechanical, thermal, and optical properties that could drive future microrobotics, energy harvesting, and biosensing technologies at the micrometer to millimeter scale. We present a strategy for transforming AM mesostructures into 3D electronics by growing nanoscale conducting films on 3D-printed polymers. This highly generalizable method utilizes precision atomic layer deposition (ALD) of conducting metal oxides on ultrasmooth photopolymer lattices printed by high-resolution microstereolithography. We demonstrate control of 3D electronic transport by tuning conformal growth of ultrathin amorphous and crystalline conducting metal oxides. To understand the scaling of 3D electrical properties, we apply graph theory to compute network resistance and precisely design the 3D mesostructures' conductivity. Finally, we demonstrate 3D-enhanced multimodal sensing of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli, geometrically boosting sensitivity by 100× over 2D films and enabling a new class of low-power, 3D-printable sensors.

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Cell Reports Physical Science



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© 2022 The Author(s).


This is an Open Access article published by Elsevier in Cell Reports Physical Science in 2022, available online: