Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


The use of engineered cells, tissues, and organs has the opportunity to change the way injuries and diseases are treated. Commercialization of these groundbreaking technologies has been limited in part by the complex and costly nature of their manufacture. Process-related variability and even small changes in the manufacturing process of a living product will impact its quality. Without real-time integrated detection, the magnitude and mechanism of that impact are largely unknown. Real-time and non-destructive sensor technologies are key for in-process insight and ensuring a consistent product throughout commercial scale-up and/or scale-out. The application of a measurement technology into a manufacturing process requires cell and tissue developers to understand the best way to apply a sensor to their process, and for sensor manufacturers to understand the design requirements and end-user needs. Furthermore, sensors to monitor component cells’ health and phenotype need to be compatible with novel integrated and automated manufacturing equipment. This review summarizes commercially relevant sensor technologies that can detect meaningful quality attributes during the manufacturing of regenerative medicine products, the gaps within each technology, and sensor considerations for manufacturing.

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IOP Science

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© 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd


This is an Open Access article published by IOP Science in Biofabrication in 2023, available online: