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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Among various available 3D bioprinting techniques, extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting allows the deposition of cell-laden bioink, ensuring predefined scaffold architecture that may offer living tissue regeneration. With a combination of unique characteristics such as biocompatibility, less cell toxicity, and high water content, natural hydrogels are a great candidate for bioink formulation for the extrusion-based 3D bioprinting process. However, due to its low mechanical integrity, hydrogel faces a common challenge in maintaining structural integrity. To tackle this challenge, the rheological properties, specifically the shear thinning behavior (reduction of viscosity with increasing the applied load/shear rate on hydrogels) of a set of hybrid hydrogels composed of cellulose-derived nanofiber (TEMPO-mediated nano-fibrillated cellulose, TO-NFC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and commonly used alginate, were explored. A total of 46 compositions were prepared using higher (0.5% and 1.0%) and lower percentages (0.005% and 0.01%) of TO-NFC, 1–4% of CMC, and 1–4% of alginate to analyze the shear thinning factors such as the values of n and K, which were determined for each composition from the flow diagram and co-related with the 3D printability. The ability to tune shear thinning factors with various ratios of a nanofiber can help achieve a 3D bio-printed scaffold with defined scaffold architecture.

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© 2023 by the authors.


This is an Open Access article published by MDPI in Materials in 2023, available online: