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For most of his adult life, John Lennon fought to define himself against his public identity as "Beatle-:John." That image, crafted by the Beatles' manager Brian Epstein and the pop music industry became a burden to all four of the Beatles during the group's seven years of international star-dom. In place of the rough leather-clad rock and roll band that played rambling one hour sets in the Hamburg Kaiserkeller and the Liverpool Cavern Club during 1960-61, Epstein forged a more commercially viable group of four well (and uniformly) dressed young men whose stage act was reduced to twenty minute carefully scripted sets.
Columbia University Press
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Beller-McKenna, D. “I am/was the Walrus.” Current Musicology 74 (2002): 47-68.