Helium droplets are doped with fullerenes (either C60 or C70) and hydrogen (H2 or D2) and investigated by high-resolution mass spectrometry. In addition to pure helium and hydrogen cluster ions, hydrogen-fullerene complexes are observed upon electron ionization. The composition of the main ion series is (H2)nHCm+ where m = 60 or 70. Another series of even-numbered ions, (H2)nCm+, is slightly weaker in stark contrast to pure hydrogen cluster ions for which the even-numbered series (H2)n+ is barely detectable. The ion series (H2)nHCm+ and (H2)nCm+ exhibit abrupt drops in ion abundance at n = 32 for C60 and 37 for C70, indicating formation of an energetically favorable commensurate phase, with each face of the fullerene ion being covered by one adsorbate molecule. However, the first solvation layer is not complete until a total of 49 H2 are adsorbed on C60+; the corresponding value for C70+ is 51. Surprisingly, these values do not exhibit a hydrogen-deuterium isotope effect even though the isotope effect for H2/D2 adsorbates on graphite exceeds 6%. We also observe doubly charged fullerene-deuterium clusters; they, too, exhibit abrupt drops in ion abundance at n = 32 and 37 for C60 and C70, respectively. The findings imply that the charge is localized on the fullerene, stabilizing the system against charge separation. Density functional calculations for C60-hydrogen complexes with up to five hydrogen atoms provide insight into the experimental findings and the structure of the ions. The binding energy of physisorbed H2 is 57 meV for H2C60+ and (H2)2C60+, and slightly above 70 meV for H2HC60+ and (H2)2HC60+. The lone hydrogen in the odd-numbered complexes is covalently bound atop a carbon atom but a large barrier of 1.69 eV impedes chemisorption of the H2 molecules. Calculations for neutral and doubly charged complexes are presented as well.



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Journal of Chemical Physics


AIP Publishing

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© 2013 American Institute of Physics.


This is an article published by AIP Publishing in The Journal of Chemical Physics in 2013, available online: