Eye-Hand Co-ordination with Force Feedback


The term Eye-hand co-ordination refers to hand movements controlled with visual feedback and reinforced by hand contact with objects. A correct perspective view of a virtual environment enables normal eye-hand co-ordination skills to be applied. But is it necessary for rapid interaction with 3D objects? A study of rapid hand movements is reported using an apparatus designed so that the user can touch a virtual object in the same place where he or she sees it. A Fitts tapping task is used to assess the effect of both contact with virtual objects and real-time update of the center of perspective based on the user's actual eye position. A Polhemus tracker is used to measure the user's head position and from this estimate their eye position. In half of the conditions, head tracked perspective is employed so that visual feedback is accurate while in the other half a fixed eye-position is assumed. A Phantom force feedback device is used to make it possible to touch the targets in selected conditions. Subjects were required to change their viewing position periodically to assess the importance correct perspective and of touching the targets in maintaining eye-hand co-ordination, The results show that accurate perspective improves performance by an average of 9% and contact improves it a further 12%. A more detailed analysis shows the advantages of head tracking to be greater for whole arm movements in comparison with movements from the elbow.


Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping

Publication Date


Journal or Conference Title

Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI)


CHI '00



Conference Date

Apr 1 - Apr 6, 2000

Publisher Place

The Hague, South Holland, The Netherlands


Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Document Type

Conference Proceeding