Frequency dependent measurements of attenuation and/or sound speed through clouds of gas bubbles in liquids are often inverted to find the bubble size distribution and the void fraction of gas. The inversions are often done using an effective medium theory as a forward model under the assumption that the bubble positions are Poisson distributed (i.e., statistically independent). Under circumstances in which single scattering does not adequately describe the pressure field, the assumption of independence in position can yield large errors when clustering is present, leading to errors in the inverted bubble size distribution. It is difficult, however, to determine the existence of clustering in bubble clouds without the use of specialized acoustic or optical imaging equipment. A method is described here in which the existence of bubble clustering can be identified by examining the consistency between the first two statistical moments of multiple frequency acoustic measurements.
Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping
Journal or Conference Title
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
130, Issue 5
3396 - 3405
Acoustical Society of America
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
T. C. Weber, A. P. Lyons, and D. L. Bradley, ‘Consistency in statistical moments as a test for bubble cloud clustering’, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 130, no. 5, p. 3396, 2011.