Abstract

Large turbidity currents originating on the insular margin of southern lceland have flowed clown a 2 500 km-long pathway comprising rise valleys, unchanneled plains and segments of erosional and depositional deep-sea channels that are collectively called the Maury Channel system. Two steep interplain reaches of the channel have been eut up to 100 m through volcanogenic turbidites of probable La te Pleistocene age. Near-bottom observations with side-scan sonars and profllers across the upper channels (at 59°24'N, 18°50'W, 2 750 m depth) and at the lower interplain channel (around 56°23'N, 24°25'W, 3 340 m depth) defmed their structure and morphology. The upper channels, and a tributary to the lower channel, start as broad, shallow depressions that deepen and narrow downstream. The lower channel bas a pattern of anastomosing branches that probably evolved by head ward extension of low-angle tribu taries to the original sinuous channel, and its branches are at different stages of development. Several hundred bottom photographs show well-indurated rocks on channel walls and floors, with such flysch-like characteristics as cyclic graded bedding, clastic dikes, and syndepositional deformation. The lower-channel branches have been eut by turbidity currents with speeds of 5- 12 rn/sec., and combined discharges exceeding 1 x 106 m3 /sec. Bedrock erosion in and around the channels bas proceeded by intense corrasion and fluid stressing, and is marked by such small-scale effects as rock polishing, fluting, pot-holing and ledge recession. Rockfalls have caused retreat of steep channel walls, and conglomerate or pcbbly mudstone deposits suggest that debris flows have been locally active. Sorne coarse debris delivered by these processes and "clay halls" torn from semi-lithifled outcrops remain in the channels, but the channel f1ll is generally thin, with a patch y veneer of pelagie mud that bas accumulated since the last major turbidity current event. The surfaces of the unconsolidated s~diment have been smoothed and lineated, or moulded into seo ur moats and occasional fields of ripples, by thermohaline currents.

Publication Date

1981

Journal Title

Oceanologica Acta

Document Type

Article

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